"...Egypt is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west.
...Egypt is one of the most populous countries in Africa and the Middle East. The great majority of its estimated 79 million people live near the banks of the Nile River, in an area of about 40,000 square kilometers (15,000 sq mi), where the only arable land is found. The large areas of the Sahara Desert are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
...President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak has ruled the autocratic state as President of the Republic with dictatorial powers since October 14, 1981, after the assassination of President Mohammed Anwar El-Sadat.
...The Egyptian military receives billions of dollars of aid from the United States. It remains Egypt's most powerful institution. It has dozens of factories manufacturing weapons as well as consumer goods, and it exempts itself from laws that apply to other sectors.
...A rapidly growing population, limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress the economy.
Egypt is the most populated country in the Middle East and the third most populous on the African continent, at about 78,866,635 (July 2009 est.).
Population grew rapidly from 1970-2010 due to medical advances and increases in agricultural productivity, enabled by the Green Revolution.
Egypt's population was estimated at only 3 million when Napoleon invaded the country in 1798.
In 1939, Egypt had a population of 16.5 million."